Etnocentrismo del consumidor e intención de compra en países en desarrollo

Contenido principal del artículo

Catalina González-Cabrera https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1367-9337
Karen Trelles-Arteaga https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4982-4073

Resumen

Las empresas en los países con menos experiencia productiva se ven amenazadas por el ingreso de productos extranjeros, percibidos como superiores entre los consumidores, lo que pone en desventaja a sus productos. Por consiguiente, los productores locales requieren de estrategias efectivas que doten a sus productos de ventajas competitivas frente a las importaciones. Al respecto, investigaciones sobre el comportamiento del consumidor, han identificado que las creencias, percepciones y actitudes asociadas al país de origen de los productos tienen influencia en la intención de compra. En este sentido, el presente artículo analiza el grado en el que el etnocentrismo del consumidor tiene efecto sobre la intención de compra de calzado nacional, también examina posibles factores predictores y condicionadores de la relación. Para esto, se empleó una encuesta en una muestra conformada por 361 estudiantes universitarios. En ella se utilizó una versión adaptada de la escala CETSCALE para medir el nivel de etnocentrismo del consumidor más una escala que mide la intención de compra de productos nacionales. En consecuencia, se comprobó que el nivel de etnocentrismo en el consumidor influye positivamente en la intención de compra del producto nacional y que condiciona el efecto del hábito de compra sobre la intención de compra, además, que la escala CETSCALE es una herramienta que puede ser utilizada en economías en desarrollo con interesantes resultados. Las implicaciones gerenciales y limitaciones de la investigación son discutidas a detalle.

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